The Eye of Horus is one of the most famous symbols of ancient Egypt.
Also known as Udjat, this magical symbol is supposed to offer protection, health and rejuvenation. Because of its powerful protective powers, the Eye of Horus was popularly used as amulets by ancient Egyptians, both living and dead. Even today, the Eye of Horus continues to be used as a symbol of protection.
The origin of the Eye of Horus can be found in the myth of Seth and Osiris. The ancient Egyptians considered Osiris as the king of Egypt and that his brother Seth wanted his throne. By trickery, Seth succeeded in murdering his brother and became the new king. Osiris' wife, Isis, however, managed to bring her husband back to life temporarily by magic and became pregnant with Horus.
A rare sample of Egyptian terracotta sculpture depicts Isis in mourning for Osiris. The sculpture depicts a woman raising her right arm above her head, a typical gesture of mourning.
Osiris became the god of the underworld and Isis raised Horus on his own. When Horus reached adulthood, he sought revenge for his father's death. Horus fought Set in a series of battles, and finally defeated his uncle. During these struggles, however, he lost one of his eyes. According to one version of the myth, Seth had ripped Horus' eye out, ripped it into six parts and threw it away. In another version, Horus himself was the one who gouged his eye out, as a sacrifice to bring his father back from the dead. In any case, Horus' lost eye was magically restored either by Hathor (often considered as Horus' wife) or by Thoth, the god of wisdom.
As Horus' eye has been magically restored, the ancient Egyptians believed that it had healing properties. The amulets of this symbol were made from a variety of materials, including gold, lapis lazuli and cornelian, and were used as jewellery by both the living and the dead.
It is interesting to note that the Eye of Horus is not only a magical symbol, but also an example of the mathematical knowledge acquired by the ancient Egyptians. In the myth mentioned above, Set tore Horus' eye into six parts. As a symbol, the Eye of Horus contains six parts. Each of them received a fraction as a unit of measurement - the right side of the eye is 1/2, the pupil 1/4, the eyebrow 1/8, the left side of the eye 1/16, the curved tail 1/32 and the tear 1/64. These fractions total 63/64, and it is said that the missing part represents either Thoth's magical powers or that it illustrates that nothing is perfect.
In ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic spelling, isolated parts of the symbol "Horus' Eye" were supposed to be used to write various fractions.
Each of the six parts of the Eye of Horus corresponds to a different meaning.
As a representation of food, this part of the Eye of Horus corresponds to the sense of taste. Finally, the tear is supposed to represent the sense of touch, because this part of the eye represents a rod planted in the ground, an act that involves physical contact and touch.
Although the ancient Egyptian civilization has come to an end, the belief in the power of the Eye of Horus has continued and this symbol is still used by many today. For example, in Mediterranean countries, fishermen often painted this symbol on their boats to protect themselves. In addition, many people still wear the Eye of Horus as a jewel, to protect themselves from the unwillingness of others. Moreover, the Eye of Horus is popular among occultists and conspiracy theorists, who consider it not only as a protective symbol, but also as a symbol of power, knowledge and illusion.